Development Alternatives

A Designated ENVIS CENTRE by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) since 1984 Home | Contact Us | Query | e-News | Publications | Bibliography

  Introduction to ESAT
  Success Stories
  Case Studies
  Resources at DA
  Research Projects
  Forthcoming Events
  Relevant Links

New Publications

Note : - Publications cited here are just the references, we have prepared by scanning the publishers' catalouges and book reviews. Whereas, the publications which we have cited under the section "Information Resources" are available in the Library of Development Alternatives.    
Water Security – Opportunity for Development and Cooperation in the Aral Sea Area
Published by Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). Sveavagen 59, SE- II3 59 Stockholm, Sweden. Price $ 25.

Co-convened by the Swedish Section of the United Nation Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and the Stockholm International Water Institute, this seminar held in August 2000 presented ongoing framework programs research work and future-looking methodologies to reach water security in the Aral Sea region.

Water Security for the 21st Century Innovative Approaches : Proceedings from the 10th Stockholm Water Symposium
Published by Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). Sveavagen 59, SE- II3 59 Stockholm, Sweden. Price $ 25.

The 10th Stockholm Water Symposium examined how to cope with the creeping but predictable water related problems due to population growth, urbanization and industrialization. Leading experts discussed how key barriers can be overcome by increasing water awareness, literacy, solidarity and stewardship in society through innovative educational campaigns in an effort to make water everybody’s business. Co-published with the International Water Association. This document has been mailed to all Participants at the 10 th Stockholm Water Symposium.

Water Harvesting for Upgrading of Rainfed Agriculture:
Problem Analysis and Research Needs
Published by Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). Sveavagen 59, SE- II3 59 Stockholm, Sweden. Price $ 25.

This report, prepared by SIWI for the Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (MISTRA) synthesizes the current level of understanding in the field of water harvesting for crop production, and identifies key research needs.

Based in three parts, the first present the hydro climatic constraints and challenges facing farmers and gives a brief presentation of water harvesting and strategies to manage water scarcity. Part two has regional approaches from sub-saharan Africa, India and China. The last part identifies knowledge gaps that need to be filled, both regarding technical, process and systems research.

International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste Managament : Technical Publication Series No. 6
Published by UNEP - IETC. SMI (Distribution Services) Ltd. P. O. Box 119, Stevenage, Herts- SG1 4TP. England. E-mail: . 2000 ISBN 92-807-1503-8. Price US$60. Pages 443. Stock No. 1894

This source book provides developing countries and countries with economics in transition with information sources and selected technologies relating to environmentally sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW)- separation at source, collection, transport, storage and treatment, disposal, management of disposal sites, and recycling. The main objective is to prepare a thorough inventory of available information sources and also to include an analysis of sound practices of innovative and cost-effective technologies as well as strategic planning of the integrated MSW system. The book was reviewed by more than 20 experts around the world and special efforts have been made to prepare the book in an attractive and user-friendly format. The essence of its contents is available on IETC’s web site:

Proceedings of the International Regional Conference on Environmental Technologies for Wastewater Management :
Report Series No. 7
Published by UNEP - IETC. SMI (Distribution Services) Ltd. P. O. Box 119, Stevenage, Herts- SG1 4TP. England. E-mail: 2000
ISBN 0-86905-708-1. Pages 297. Stock No. 2650

In December 1997, IETC sponsored a conference in Environmental Technologies for Wastewater Management at Murdoch University in Australia. The Conference was targeted at the needs of national/local government, and civil society decision-makers in the area of technology implementation/regulation, as well those with responsibilities in environmental management. This publication contains reports selected from the papers presented at the conference after a thorough review process.

Environmental Technology Assessment (EnTA) in Sub-Saharan Africa – a UNEP (EnTA) Leadership Training Programme:
Report Series No. 3
Published by UNEP - IETC. SMI (Distribution Services) Ltd. P. O. Box 119, Stevenage, Herts- SG1 4TP. England. E-mail: 2000
ISBN 92-807-1698-0. Price US$15. Pages 63. Stock No. 2597

In November 1997, the then UNEP IE/IETC Environmental Technology Assessment Programme and GEC held a leadership training programme for Sub-Saharan Africa. The programme on the Utilisation of EnTA for decision-making in the management of ESTs was held in South Africa In collaboration with Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education. Structured around case studies from th host city and participating countries, the training was targeted at the needs of Sub-Saharan African governments, civil society and industrial decision-makers in the areas of technology implementation /regulation, as well as at those involved with environmental matters. These proceedings summarise each session and country reports presented to the workshop.

Proceedings of the Workshop on Adopting, Applying and Operating Environmentally Sound Technologies for Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Treatment for the Wider Caribbean Region :
Report Series No. 3
Published by UNEP - IETC. SMI (Distribution Services) Ltd. P. O. Box 119, Stevenage, Herts- SG1 4TP. England. E-mail: 2000
ISBN 0-86905-679-4. Price US$50. Pages 308. Stock No. 2598

Knowledge of the issues in adoption, application and operation of ESTs has become essential in planning the sustainable use of natural resources and the reduction of environmental impacts from human activities such as waste. This workshop, following on from the Dresden Workshop, was held from 16 to 20 November 1999 in Montego Bay, Jamaica. This publication of the proceedings provided experts from governments in the wider Caribbean region with the basic concepts related to "Adopting, Applying and Operating ESTs" together with the latest technological alternatives for the treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater.

Workbook for Training in Adopting, applying and Operating Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) - Regional Workshop :
Report Series No. 3
Published by UNEP - IETC. SMI (Distribution Services) Ltd. P. O. Box 119, Stevenage, Herts- SG1 4TP. England. E-mail: 2000
ISBN 92-807-1478-0. Price US$60. Pages 322. Stock No. 2599

In December 1997, IETC in collaboration with Murdoch University, Australia, organised a regional workshop for the Asia /Pacific Region in adopting, applying and operating Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs). This followed the Dresden workshop, which combined proactive sessions, exercizes, small-group work and field trips to build individual and institutional capacities, and focused attention on priority issues such as freshwater resources, water supply, issues such as freshwater resources, water supply, technology transfer, waste management and city planning. The Workbook contains session outlines, including reports and presentations, and documents related to the workshop.

Encyclopedia - the guide to alternatives in cycling
Published by Open Road, The Danesmead Wing, 33 Fulford Cross, York. YO10 4PB. UK. ISBN 1898457-04-2. Price £12. 145 pages. Paperback.

Encyclopedia allows inventors, designers, and engineers who are trying to change the world for the better, to offer real practical transport alternatives. Brought together in this buyers guide, complete with manufacturer profiles and contact information, these bicycles offer the very latest in cutting edge, human-powered transportation, and Encyclopedia tells you how to find them. Illustrated in the guide are portables machines that can be folded up and put in a bag; family bicycles, including child-seats, tandems, trailer bikes, adult tricycles; trailers come in many shapes and sizes, including two-wheeled trailers that can carry up to 100kg or so. For the heavier loads, though, there are rickshaws and transport bikes that will take a quarter of a tonne. If you want a speed machine on a banked racing track, a heavy black roadster on the streets of Calcutta, or a recumbent cruising along to enjoy the view, the right machine can be found in the Encyclopedia.

Rainwater catchment systems for domestic supply
by John Gould and Erik Nissen-Petersen
Published by Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd., 103/105 Southampton Row, London WCIB 4HH. ISBN: 1 85339 456 4. Price
£ 14.95. 334pages. Paperback.

Over the last two decades there have been intensive efforts to provide more and more people with supplies of clean water for domestic uses. Despite these programmes there are still around one billion people who do not have easy access to clean water.Most of the efforts to provide a clean water supply have concentrated on providing wells or a piped supply, while the collection and storage of rainwater runoff from roofs, and yards has been generally neglected, yet it is far cheaper and simpler to do. This book shows how it can be done. The focus is on implementation of roof and ground catchment systems for meeting either total or supplementary household water requirements. All aspects of design and construction are covered, including simple methods of sizing systems, erection of gutters, choice of materials, construction techniques, training, operation and maintenance. In addition, non-technical factors such as water quality, health, social, financial, cultural, political, institutional and gender issues are discussed. The text is fully supported with drawings and photographs and a detailed iilustrated step-by-step account is provided of how to build several different types of household rainwater tanks with volumes from 2 to 90 cubic metres. There are also useful contact addresses, internet resources, details of construction manuals, construction procedures and repairs of existing tanks. The authors have spent over 20 years constructing and researching rainwater systems in Africa and Asia, and they draw on these experiences with a number of case studies.

A Water Harvesting Manual for urban areas: Case studies from Delhi
Published by Centre for Science and Environment, 41 Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi- 110 062. Price Rs.90/-. .

A technical easy-to-use manual that can be used by anyone.
Contains basic concepts and techniques of water harvesting at residential, institutional or industrial levels, accompanied with simple illustrations. Also contains case studies of water harvesting systems designed by CSE. Water is everybody's business. Make it yours.

Sustainable Technology Development
by P. Weaver, L. Jansen, G. van Grootveld, E. Van Speigel and P. Vergragt (2000).
Greenleaf Publishing, Aizlewood Business Centre, Aizlewood's Mill, Nursery Street, Sheffield S38GG, UK. ISBN: 1-874719-09-8. 304p. Hbk.

The Dutch government commissioned a five-year research programme to determine what technologies and development paths are needed in order to achieve a sustainable world, using a method called "backcasting." The project began with a vision of a sustainable future in 50 years that met all the known environmental and economic constraints, and in which factor 10 to factor 20 eco-efficiency had been achieved. The backcasting method set out to describe steps that should be taken now, so that the necessary technologies and systems would be in place. This "Virtual hindsight" led to 15 case study projects on nutrition, shelter, mobility, materials and water. Sustainable Technology Development presents several of the case studies. Prospects for sustainable technologies are evaluated.

International Federation for Women in Agriculture (India) and the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (the Philippines). 1997. ISBN 0-942717-69-4. WE339Z US$30.00. 213 pages.

This practical workbook focuses on 60 simple technologies to help farmers with animal husbandry, vegetable harvesting, organic farming, seed production and storage, pests and pesticides, water management and fish farming. Step-by-step instructions and easy-to-follow diagrams make this an invaluable hands-on manual for extension workers as well as neoliterate farmers.

The Appropriate Technology Sourcebook
by Ken Darrow and Mike Saxenian (1993)
Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd., 103-105 Southampton Row, London WC1B 4HH, UK. ISBN 0 91770 417 7, (VIA), Price
£19.95. 800pp.

Detailing over 1150 books on appropriate technology, this standard text covers agricultural tools, water supply systems, small enterprise development, renewable energy systems and non-formal education. Now fully updated.

by Susan Johnson and Ben Rogaly (1997)
Women, Ink., 777 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 19917, USA. ISBN 0-85598-369-8 WE323Z US$14.95. 134 pages. (Also available in Spanish).

Giving an overview of the current debates on microfinance, this book explores the rich variety of informal financial services used by the poor; emphasizes the importance of the local context; discusses the design of a microfinance scheme; examines ways to sustain the provision of financial services in the long term; and reviews difficulties in and ways of assessing impact. Case-studies.

Living with drought: drought mitigation for sustainable livelihoods
by Astrid von Kotze and Ailsa Holloway
Published by Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd., 103-105 Southampton Row, London, WCIB 41111, UK. ISBN 0-86486-388-8. Price £ 19. 95. Paperback and video.

This is a two part pack - a book and a video containing three training films lasting just over one hour.The aim of this double package is to remind people that they must relearn to live with the reality of drought. Droughts are not new, many communities across the world have been living with these disasters for centuries. The droughts that have occurred recently have been the worst in living memory, and the affected communities have needed emergency assistance. The dependence on that assistance, however, can be lessened. The films show that these recent droughts, severe as they were, have been the catalyst that was needed to get affected communities in Namibia, Zambia and Lesotho to do things that will mitigate the effects of the drought.
The films show how communities in each country have taken action by introducing rotational grazing, de-stocking, water conservation, grain storage, seed banks, adding-value to farm produce and producing articles for sale. All these activities are making their lives far more sustainable, and giving them greater confidence to withstand the onslaught of another drought.
The book of learning materials is divided up to show how other communities can initiate similar activities so that they, too, can mitigate the effects of drought.
The pack is well thought out, and simple to follow. Although it is produced from experiences in southern Africa, the principles will apply anywhere in the world.

Integrated Rural Development for Sustainable Livelihood
Authored by BAIF Collective, 1998, Rs. 100/-. 181pp.

Development without concern for the environment can only be short-term, as the environment directly affects our survival Environmental pollution can affect our health in urban areas while affecting the economy in rural areas. New technologies have often widened the gap between the rich and the poor.
This book, with several black and white photographs, covers various topics dealing with the promotion of sustainable rural development in India, particularly BAIF's experience over the past 30 years. It should be useful for donors, the general public and field practitioners involved in poverty alleviation programmes in India and other developing countries.

Technology Options for Electricity Generation: Economic and Environmental factors
By Hadi Dowlatabadi and Michael A Toman (1991)
Published by Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street, NW, Washington, DC 200 36.
ISBN: 0-915707-58-6. Price: $12.95. 87 Pages. Paperback

The authors present and apply a simulation model with a capability for highly detailed activity analysis to identify cost-minimizing investment options for electricity generation under different assumptions about demand, costs, regulation, and other economic and environmental factors.

The Design and Management of Sustainable Projects to Alleviate Poverty in South Asia
Edited by Michael Bamberger and Abdul Aziz (1993)
Published by The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 204 33, USA
ISBN: 0-8213-2472-1. Price Code: S22. Stock No. 12472. 350 Pages

Poverty endures in South Asia despite sustained economic growth in many countries of the region. The papers in this report review practical ways to help poor people benefit from social and economic development. They present different approaches to antipoverty programs in Asia.

Sustainable Wastewater Treatment with soil filters
By P Wyss and B Zust (2000)
Published by SKAT (Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in technology and Management), Vadianstrasses 42, CH- 9000, St. Gallen, Switzerland
ISBN: 3-908001-88-9. Price:
£10.00/CHF22.00. 66 Pages

This brochure intended to assist decision-makers is not a design manual. It describes the construction and operational principles of soil filters and outlines their economic, institutional, legal and socio-cultural aspects. The brochure also includes a short comparison of soil filters with other extensive treatment methods, and a list of questions to consider when faced with the need to select a wastewater treatment system.

Climate Responsive Building: Appropriate Building Construction in Tropical and Subtropical Regions
By P Gut and D Ackernecht (1993)
Published by SKAT (Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in technology and Management), Vadianstrasses 42, CH- 9000, St. Gallen, Switzerland
ISBN3-908001-39-0. Price:
£35.00/CHF65.00. 324 Pages

This book describes alternative techniques for designing buildings for specific climates in tropical and subtropical regions. Emphasis is given to "soft measures" and natural means that will reduce energy consumption by well considered construction and appropriate selection of materials. It gives the theoretical background which is necessary to understand the climate factors, the principles of thermal processes and climatic design.

Eco-restructuring: Implications for Sustainable Development
Edited by Robert U Ayres and Paul M Weaver (2000)
Published by United Nations University Press. 53-70 , Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150 8925, Japan
ISBN 92-808-0984-9 Price: US$29.95. 424 Pages. paper

This study provides a significant contribution to the literature on sustainability by identifying, on a sectoral basis, the critical issues facing the world as a whole, and the technical feasibility of addressing them. A new paradigm of eco-structuring for sustainable development is introduced, involving shifts in technology, economic activities and lifestyles needed to harmonize human activities with natural systems

Technologies for wasteland development
By I p Abrik & others (2000)
Published by Natraj Publishers. The Green Bookshop, 17, Rajpur Road, Dehra Dun- 248 001
Price: 140.00.

This book lays emphasis on various management technologies to prevent degradation and to rehabilitate wastelands.

Tribals Under the Jawahar Rojgar Yojana
By A K Singh (2000)
Published by Natraj Publishers. The Green Bookshop, 17, Rajpur Road, Dehra Dun- 248 001.
Price: 200.00.

Tribals Cooperative System
By S Mahalingam (2000)
Published by Natraj Publishers. The Green Bookshop, 17, Rajpur Road, Dehra Dun- 248 001
Price: 215.00.

Dictionary of Environmental Science and Technology
Published by John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO 191 UD, UK. E-mail:

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary field whose terms and knowledge are designed from ecology, biology, chemistry, biochemistry, metrology, economics, engineering, politics and sociology. As the environmental field grows, its terminology is becoming more complex and specialised. This dictionary, now in its third edition, provides definitions and cross references for over 4000 entries. Illustrations and case studies are included for many terms and concepts while a few entries are specific to the UK legal system, most are in general use. Also included are some EU and American terms and definitions.

Clean Technology for the Manufacture of Speciality Chemicals
By W Hoyle & M Lancaster (2001)
Published by Allied Publishers Ltd. 13/14 Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi - 110 002.
ISBN 0-85404-885-5. Price £ 49.50. Pages 100. Hard bound. Code No. BP 8

Producing large quantities of waste is not only environmentally unacceptable, it is also not viable in economic terms. The chemical industry, particularly the speciality and pharmaceuticals sectors, is becoming increasingly aware of the advantages associated with clean technology, particularly in terms of competitive advantage and environmental benefits.

Bringing together an understanding of the concepts and values of clean technology by using case studies from some leading European countries, this book provides an insight into subjects such as catalysis; process intensification; and how to measure the " green" value of a process. It also highlights the role played by both the chemical and chemical engineering disciplines in the development of cleaner processes.

Clean Technology for the Manufacture of Speciality Chemicals will prove valuable reading for process development chemists and engineers, particularly those in the specialities and pharmaceuticals sectors, and will also be an important source of teaching material for the growing number of clean technology chemistry courses.

Environmental Risk Assessment for Sustainable Cities - IETC position Paper: Technical Publications Series No.3
Published by UNEP - IETC. SMI (Distribution Services) Ltd. P. O. Box 119, Stevenage, Herts- SG1 4TP. England. E-mail: . 2000. ISBN 92-807-1505-4. Price US$30. Pages 57. Stock No. 1879

This position Paper outlines the benefits of using the Environmental Risk Assessment technology (EnRA) as an organizing tool in the UNCHS (Habitat) Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP) strategic Planning Process. The Paper details the conceptual foundation and current Practices of EnRA approaches (vis-a vis human health and ecological assessments). Specific attention is directed toward characterizing the iterative steps required to produced valid qualitative and quantitative predictions of risk; explaining information requirements and uncertainty estimates; Providing the means required to communicate risk information to technical and non-technical audiences; and drawing the link between the economic development, capacity-building and replicability of strategic Planning efforts embodied in the SCP and EnRA Processes.

UNEP Survey of Information Systems Related to Environmentally Sound Technologies- Contribution to the 1997 Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development
Published by UNEP - IETC. SMI (Distribution Services) Ltd. P. O. Box 119, Stevenage, Herts- SG1 4TP. England. E-mail: . 2000 ISBN 92-807-1502-X. Price US$40. Pages 250. Stock No. 1945

Compiled jointly by three UNEP Units- IETC, TIE and INFOTERRA it presents the results of an extensive survey over the years 1994 to 1996 to identify and characterize existing and planned information systems and sources of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) world wide. The report identifies 84 such information systems and characterizes them with respect to the technologies covered, information provided, and the cost and presentation of such information.

The report is submitted to the fifth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) to meet the critical need for a comprehensive inventory of the current state of information sources related to ESTs. Data of this report was integrated into a searchable EST database called maESTro, which is also accessible on the Centre's web site:

The Councillor as Guardian of the Environment - A Training Handbook for Elected Leadership on How to Utilize Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) Technical Publication Series No.7
Published by UNEP - IETC. 2-110 Ryokuchi Koen, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka- 538 0036. Japan. E-mail: 2000. ISBN 92-807-1513-5. Price US$25. Pages 196. Stock No. 2591

This handbook has been developed by UNEP in close collaboration with the Training Section of UNCHS (Habitat). Assessments conducted both organizations have shown that training needs of local government elected officials (councillors), or of local politicians, appear among the most urgent world wide and, at the same time, the least attended areas of capacity-building for local development and environmental compatible urban management . The training manual, therefore, complements IETCs capacity building strategy of designing and implementing pilot training programmes in assessing, and implementing pilot training programmes in assessing, adopting, applying and operating Environmentally sound Technologies. Supported by its modular structure, the publication can be easily used by national or regional training institutions to design and implement demand driven programmes on environmental issues for local government officials.

Training Needs in Utilising Environmental Technology Assessment (ETA) for Decision-making - A Preliminary Study to Strengthen Capabilities in Managing Environmentally sound Technologies (ESTs)
Technical Publication Series No.1
Published by UNEP - IETC. SMI (Distribution Services) Ltd. P. O. Box 119, Stevenage, Herts- SG1 4TP. England. E-mail: 2000. ISBN 92-807-1514-3. Price US$10. Pages 57. Stock No. 2592

This report contains the results of a questionnaire inquiry conducted by UNEP IETC to identify training needs in developing countries and countries with economies in transition for improving decision making regarding ESTs for sustainable management of large cities and freshwater resources. Individuals and institutions representing target countries for prospective training interventions as well as industrialized countries knowledgeable about the training needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition were approached.

Work-book for Training in Environmental Technology Assessment (EnTA) for Decision-Makers
Technical Publication Series No.5
Published by UNEP - IETC. 2-110 Ryokuchi Koen, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka- 538 0036. Japan. E-mail:  2000. ISBN 92-807-1511-9. Price US$50. Pages 255. Stock No. 2594

This book combines proceedings and sessions from a Workshop on Environmental Technology Assessment (EnTA) for Decision makers in sustainable urban and freshwater management, which was held in Kuala Lumpur from 12 to 17 November 1995. UNEP IETC and the Malaysia National Institute of public Administration (INTAN), in collaboration with the Urban Management Programme's (UMP) Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, conducted the workshop. The Programme also benefitted from the findings of a preliminary study on Training Needs in Utilizing EnTA for Decision-making; IETC s Technical Publication No.1

Although not a blueprint this publication can be used for follow up activities on EnTA training in countries in a similar situation to those states represented at the Malaysia pilot Workshop.

Workbook for Training in Adopting, Applying and Operating Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs)- A Pilot Programme
Report Series No.1
Published by UNEP - IETC. 2-110 Ryokuchi Koen, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka- 538 0036. Japan. E-mail:  2000. ISBN 92-807-1512-7. Price US$50. Pages 303. Stock No. 2595

In order to enhance awareness and capacities of managers and decision makers in developing countries and countries with economies in transition on taking up and using ESTs a pilot Workshop on Adopting, Applying and Operating Environmentally Sound Technologies for Urban and Freshwater Resources was held in September 1996 in Dresden, Germany. IETC and the Centre for International Postgraduate Studies of Environmental Management at the Dresden University of Technology jointly organized the workshop.

During the workshop, participants elaborated proposals for regional follow-up training activities. Drawing from those designs, IETC developed a programme for the Asia/Pacific region held in December 1997 at Murdoch University in perth, Australia. Modules from the pilot workshop will also be used for training activities in other regions.

Hand-dug shallow Wells: Manuals on Drinking Water Supply Series
By Seamus Collins
Published by SKAT-SDC. ITDG Publishing. 103-105 Southampton Row. London WC1 B- 4HL, United Kingdom. 2000. Volume 5. ISBN 3-908001-97-8. Price £ 14.00. Pages 92.

This manual deals with the planning construction, management, operation and maintenance of hand dug wells for water supplies for communities in the south, it is intended to be used by planners, engineers and technicians In the water sector, with the aim of facilitating decisions on the type of technology to use in a given situation and, where relevant, to outline the implementation of that technology.


ENVIS Portal  I  Other ENVIS Centres I   e-Newsletter

Copyright © 2003, Development Alternatives